The Hungarian government is now found in Europe 1100 years ago, but many of the Hungarians some jöttmenteknek, considered foreigners in this country. How did this perception? There are two reasons: first, that the Hungarian language is not comparable to most of the languages of Europe, the other reason is that the Hungarians jövetelükkor truly barbaric idegenekként behaved. But this was a very long time ago ...
10 mid-century, two prominent Hungarian prince has respect for the Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus yard. The Emperor kifaggatta them népükről country and the valuable information and följegyezte, and the government of the empire on his work published. The Hungarian princes told the monarch that his people were fifty-five years (ie, in 895 AD) settled today's home, in the Carpathian Basin. The Hungarian strain divided into seven lives life to the war chiefs at the time of embereiket together and fight together. Often had to fight. The Hungarians have been accused is not a new place of residence. The different waves of migration and drove them west. Formerly called Levédia country lived in the neighborhood of the Khazars - told the Hungarian princes - but the attack Pechenegs new location, the land called Etelköz moved later, however, the Pechenegs expelled them from there, so now settled in their place of residence.
The historical sources in places - and Levédia Etelköz - Localization of the eternal theme of Hungarian science. I certainly know where you came from the Hungarians, and I guess more or less, from starting point. The long-hiking is also possible, however, several points and Levédia Etelköz: the former was the Volga river, on the territory of Bashkortostan today, possibly the Lower Volga, Northern Caucasus or the foreground, the latter most likely place in the territory of modern Ukraine. I started from the migration of the Hungarians? In determining the place of linguistics and archeology of history helps. The Hungarian language belongs to the family of the Uralic languages, the Ugric languages subgroup of next of kin of the languages spoken in Western Siberia, Khanty and Mansi. Is likely ancestors of the Hungarians in Western Siberia began to migrate. Probably the most southern part of this land is inhabited, it has been in contact with the grass pusztákon migratory nomádokkal and eltanulva way of life, some joined them. BC 1. millennium moved to the side of Ural Mountains, and finally broke away from the populated by linguistic erdőövezettől. This is the first lifestyle elődeinknél took place. The sztyeppövezetben live ősiráni nomadic peoples, the influence of the Hungarian nation became nagyállattartó and sztyeppövezet located on the northern edge. The AD 1. the middle of a new millennium has been a major cultural change in the Hungarians: Turkish-speaking peoples of the impact of farming and livestock production more efficient, more modern ways of met (istállózó animal husbandry, agriculture eloquent, Garden, vines).
In the 9th century, when they were betelepülésére the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin, namely the conquest, our ancestors lived in a transitional society: tribal with their decay has started, but the States were only emerging. The key to the power elite's own armed forces, which, in peacetime also wants to maintain. This, however, was not yet sufficient regular income. Therefore rablóhadjáratokra started. The Hungarian troops in the 10th beszáguldozták first half of the century the whole of Europe: Ibériába reached, Italy, and there were also the gates of Byzantium. The fighters, often in different Hungarian and German emperors in Italy hired to attack their opponents. However, Europe is slowly felocsúdott, familiar with the Hungarian könnyűlovas warfare antidote, both poignant and defeated his opponent (933 in and 955 in). This is a new era in the history of the Hungarians ended. Beszorulva their places of life needed to find other ways. Started in state.
Hungary's first king, St. Stephen, leader of the conquest was a descendant of Árpád. Stephen's only state activities of the Hungarian útkeresésének closing act was. His father, Prince Géza began at the time of building peaceful relations with neighboring states and the Christian spirit of passion began to come. Priests and armed knights were invited into the country, developing are central to the ideological and military power to serve támaszául. Baptized himself, Prince Géza well. The recognition results indicate that the son of Stephen Géza Gizella of Bavaria acquired the house with his wife. However, the process of the state to meet Stephen, he claimed the society and the country as a basis instead of the previous system of kinship relations director of the territorial principle. Hungary split counties. All counties had substantial royal estates, they target a castle stood. The castles and the surrounding villages of different services to meet artisans lived. They regularly visit the castles of the king, there törvénykezett and took over the territory of the county collected taxes (the udvartartásával handed and has used up its produce). Stephen Crown Pope adding activities in the state admitted.
The new system earlier victim freedoms and new violations caused significant land ownership by removing and Christian violence in return of payment. No wonder, then, that the strengthening of the feudal period of rebellion was accompanied by several 11 century, and later kings törvénykezéséből and we know that a significant number of endangered public order vagabond, who apparently lost one of the new order were: földtelenné become spiritually or just could not process the social changes, evolving disparities. The young Hungarian state is still a danger: the feudal anarchy. The 11-12. century, were donated by the king landed a major privatization, which recover 13 the first half of IV century. Bela attempt. But the plans could not be carried out: in the 1242's after the Mongol invasion of the country had to focus on the protection and, therefore, could not the landowners, the "barons" to act against violence.
Tatárokként in Europe only in 1242 known as the Mongolian invaders sacked and devastated Hungary, the king lives in direct danger, up to the castle of Trogir Dalmatian chasing the invaders. The emergency was over, IV. Bela wanted to unite the forces of the country, it is another important földbirtokokat be donated, in return, committed to building castles in the new holders. 13 By the end of the century, the royal power in Hungary is extremely weakened, and the royal family also depleted the talent, hatalomképes offspring. In 1301, the 895-ös conquest managing chieftain Árpád dynasty died out. Different interest groups, peers called up people from different places were crowned king. The rival of
Anjou in Naples from Charles Robert raised. His reign from 1308 officially calculated, but it took a decade or two, what powers every kiskirállyal "was able to recognize. Robert and his son Charles I Louis, and the ensuing reign of Sigismund the evolution of ideas have had a renaissance. Sigismund knightly culture was introduced. Given that the later the German-Roman Emperor was elected, and therefore less and less dealt with the affairs of Hungary. The country is divided into six parts, five-confidence among the men who acted on his own behalf. During this period, Hungary economically stronger: the Highlands, was the unfolding of the precious metal and textiles, the Great Plain were a substantial number of cattle in Western European markets. After the death of Sigismund strengthening feudal anarchy in the country again because of reduced economic performance and lack of centralized political power as well. The barons and prelates hatalmaskodásait there was no restriction. Transylvania social tensions erupted in 1437. The peasant uprising led by Antal Budai Nagy after the initial success failed because of the Transylvanian landlords ellentéteiket aside, united their forces, and the decisive battle near Cluj defeated the peasant army.
In those years, appeared in the Southern Region of the regular Turkish army elővédjeként of rablócsapatok. The country's independence has been compromised. A talented soldier, John Hunyadi, then wait several southern commander, almost the only defending the country. Meanwhile, significant magánbirtokokra also like to, which translates to protect the country's income level. 1444 Battle of Varna in the fall of the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Jagiellonian Władysław from the House. Then a few years Hunyadi as governor controls the country. The Turks in 1453, captures of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire, it ceases to exist. With this victory, the Turks have moved closer to the Christian countries of Europe. Soon tried to take advantage of increased opportunities. In 1456 laid siege to Belgrade - Belgrade today - that the way to Hungary to defend. Defenders of the castle of János Hunyadi Janos Kapisztrán militants and led by inexperienced fegyverforgatásban Crusaders defeat. The outbreaks of plague in the camp after the battle of the deceased "Turks" János Hunyadi.
The Hungarian nobility of bearing in mind that what is released in danger, try to leszámolni the Hunyadi family. One son, John Hunyadi, Laszlo killed. Another son, Matthias, however, in 1458 acquired the royal crown. Activity is unquestionably the most important ruler of the medieval Hungarian state. Thirty-two years of reform under the rule of the country's economy, special tax revenue gains. Income partly presztízsberuházásokra translators palotaépítkezésekbe start, a renaissance courtyard leads to the famous library is created. The Turks will not attempt to definitively leszámolni, like his father, but only seeks to curb maintaining them, as interest turned to Europe: first, the surrounding states trónjait wishes to obtain, and the German-Roman emperor wants to be. Plan is realized, and after his death, the country also decay starts a lot of pressure from the nobility of self-released follow the interests of the economy szétzilálódik the royal tenth of income are reduced.
The nobility of authoritarianism in 1514 in protest against the leadership of George Dózsa to explode the greatest Hungarian peasant uprising. The several months-long uprising was crushed and bloody repression followed. The uprising of a crusade against the Turks hadjáratból developed. After the defeat of the barons feared that the hands of the peasants to give up arms, and this further reduced the country's defense capabilities. 1526 II. Suleiman Mohács armies defeated the Hungarians died during the escape, the king. For a long time, the Turks themselves did not believe that the battle is not too important after the country fell substantially ölükbe. The Turks, however, further plans were intended to capture Vienna. This, however, has not succeeded in 1529, not 1532. Buda was captured in 1541, however, with the middle third of Hungary fell under their control, where you can built their own administrative systems. Hungary split into three parts: self-fejedelemségként Transylvania by the Turks was a vassal of the Great Plain and South Transdanubia has become part of the Turkish empire, in the northwestern part of Transdanubia and in the Highlands and the Habsburg kings lived in the rest of Hungary. This condition is about 150 years. The Turkish empire regularly launched new campaigns of the Habsburg Royal Hungary. The Hungarian wars have also been partially successful, some castles and hátországukat heroically defended themselves. In 1552 the castle of Eger was not able to take the Turks, in 1566 and again in Vienna against the stop Szigetvár vonulókat. The siege of the Turkish camp at the time of Sultan Suleiman the Great died, he tied his horse to see the soldiers alive, and do not break out köreikben panic.
The Turks have never been able to push further west to the borders of their empire. This prevented them empire geopolitical conditions and hadszervezetük features. The Turks settled the conflict in the east were the Persians. Europe towards the inside of indíthattak army only if they are satisfied that they are not threatened in the year of Persian attack. If there was no danger of the expeditionary army recruiting hozzáláthattak. In the late spring departure in general have little time left due to the siege of Vienna, as the winter before they had contact. This means that Hungary frontországgá changed. The border was hit by the very people standing struggles: the duty of the Turkish and Hungarian owners alike demanded of them, the small and large battles, rablóportyák villages néptelenedtek a result, all kinds of economic activity impossible. During the Turkish occupation in the larger settlements - Kecskemet, Debrecen, Nagykőrös - but successfully defended their interests, and there could be a marhaexportjukat to Western Europe.
The tripartite Hungary social fault lines have opened up a new life in the wake of spread of the Reformation. The Transylvanian principality gained in the Reformation, the various tendencies of the royal court of Austria-Hungary, however, the activities were supported by a strong anti-reformation. The Habsburgs, the Hungarians against the co-ordinated by the fact that more and more battles against the Turks in Western Europe, who received pillaging mercenaries, afflicted by the Hungarian population in Transylvania, also broke. In Bocskai Imre led insurgency erupted in 1606 finally ended in compromise: the nobles, citizens and soldiers were granted the freedom of belief, restored the rights of the Hungarian nobility and the Habsburgs recognized the independence of Transylvania.
In the 17th century, the royal princes, led by Hungary and Transylvania continued to "wrestle" over the full power of the Hungarians. Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania in the thirty years of war, engaging gripping Vienna, the Habsburgs and the Counter-Reformation brought a new ideological attack. This might have occurred because of the Turkish empire weakened, the ends of complicated high-eastern wars, and reduced the pressure on Europe. 17 century in the second half of the country's liberation has become a real option. This is the last major Turkish attack was preceded by: In 1683, Kara Mustafa also conquered Vienna suburbs, the Charles Lorraine and the Polish king John Sobieski was acquitted, however, defeated the army of attackers. The success of international cooperation that led to the Habsburgs, XIV, subject to an armistice. Louis the French ruler, set up the anti-Turkish alliance, the Holy League. In 1686 the combined armies of the two-month siege after recaptured Buda, the Hungarian capital. This victory followed another, and the 1699's at peace with the Turks karlócai acknowledged the loss of Hungary.
The Turks were driven out after the Hungarian nobility acknowledged the Habsburg hereditary rights to the Hungarian throne. The origin of foreign troops in the country, however, be considered prey, as the ruling itself, I Leopold also. Huge földbirtokokat sent generals, hadiszállítóinak, the Hungarian nobility, and only after a humiliating procedure, a significant amount of money was given back in return for the assets held by the Turks in fifty years. The general dissatisfaction with the result in 1703, a descendant of the Transylvanian princes, II. Rákóczi's leadership, captured the imagination of all sectors of society and freedom uprising broke out. The intermittent fighting success in 1711, the Peace of Szatmár concluded that the Habsburgs and the Hungarian nobility was a compromise. The Vienna court provided the privileges of Hungarian nobility, thus winning support. Következhettek peaceful life of the country for decades.
In the 18th century, the aristocracy partly been changed, the anti-Habsburg families died out, or their estates were confiscated. Built in the state, in 1767, directed by Maria Theresa to the status of peasants. The Habsburg Empire, is also in need of economic reform. Hungary conscious economic policy of the supplier of agricultural products within the empire was, and is also hampered by internal customs duties that the Hungarian industry in the Czech and Austrian industry konkurensévé become. At the end of the century, took the throne in 1780 II. Joseph, son of Maria Theresa. Only reigned for a decade, but far-reaching process started. Wanted to modernize the empire, namely an absolutist manner, the National Assembly without a conscious. Plans and actions in all spheres of power violated interests. Deeply violated the Hungarian nobility, however, significant numbers of citizenship and also that the Hungarian national gázolva affecting my feelings in the official language was German. The external circumstances and internal resistance made it impossible for the implementation of reforms: the monarch on his deathbed and the free worship of the rights of the serfs outside the regulations of all the regulations are withdrawn. The spirit, however, could not be reattached to the bottle by the Hungarian nobility and bourgeoisie Discovered violated Hungarians went through a national awakening. The emerging movement set out 19 first half of the century Hungarian public thinking.
In the 19th century, the Habsburg empire - as in other European countries - was preoccupied with the Napoleonic wars. The army's supply of a significant period of time provided by the Hungarian income for landowners, however, emerged after the end of the war were the structural problems of Hungarian agriculture. The economic crisis also coincided with the policies I Ferenc országgyűléseket not called up, steered the regulations, which deeply offended by the Hungarian estates, self-esteem.
The Hungarians awareness indicates that in 1802 he founded the National Szechenyi Ferenc Museum, first appeared in the scientific journal literature and public life, also picked up. Hungarian-language theatrical performances were held, and public participants engaged in a lively discussion of the Hungarian language renewal, modernization.
The Viennese external problems - the szabadságmozgalmak revive Italy - Hungarian economic need of help because of the king in 1825 was forced to convene the parliament. The National Assembly provided an opportunity to express their feelings in terms of increased national: István Széchenyi offered one year's income of the Academy of inauguration. The issue of economic reforms, however, difficult to progress, given the fact that the representatives were from the landed gentry, and national feeling inhibited, despite emancipation of the peasantry, curtailment of their privileges.
Széchenyi István élharcosává economic reforms has become foreign studies in the functioning of modern economies and knowledge of the books published. The loan, the World Stage and the 1830s, a huge public by storm and put the new economic thinking in Hungary. In 1840, another early leader in the reform of Lajos Kossuth Zemplén County representative has become his imprisonment could not break. The editor of Pesti Hirlap newspaper successfully presented its views on the jobbágyfelszabadításról the common interests of different social classes and the implementation of the national industry protection. 1847-48-The National Assembly's estate has already appeared in court and kibékíthetetlennek conflict between the Hungarians. Have met the National Assembly, when revolutionary movements began in cities across Europe.
It was natural that the revolutionary wave in Hungary átcsapó radical leader of the National Assembly representatives have become. The March 15, the revolution broke out in Budapest, while the radical demands formulated, but those between Hungary and the independence of the House of Habsburg deposition has not yet appeared. Revolutionary movements in Europe during calmed down, and the court in Vienna saw the time ripe for military action. The Hungarian revolution began drawing on the expertise of the administrative leaders of the country's economic independence and build self-military establishment. Hungarians are very successful in the spring of 1849 engaged in fighting to drive the Austrian Habsburgs. By now the whole of Europe fell silent, so that the Habsburgs were easy to help crush the Hungarian Revolution: in June I Russian Czar Nicholas sent 200 thousand troops to assist the Austrians. The combined armies of victory, despite the promise of the 13 Hungarian generals 1849th executed on October 6.
The Hungarian revolution and after the suppression of I Franz Joseph II, tried again. Joseph, after the establishment of a unified empire. The military repression and extensive besúgóhálózat paralyzed by the Hungarian public life. The slow change is started, when Austria was defeated and lost more military allies in Europe. The court in Vienna started to look for the opportunities of the Hungarian politicians, opinion leaders. The Hungarian politicians from the oppression of living in retirement years Zala estate Ferenc Deák's position prevailed, and the compromise reached in the spring of 1867, which two of the Habsburg Empire, the internal affairs of independent states - Austria and Hungary - the parliamentary basis, into common monarchiájává.
The compromise after an extraordinary economic boom in Hungary: the rail network has been established, the country had almost inaccessible provinces related to the economic bloodstream. Pest, Buda and Óbuda merger in 1873, established a new capital city, Budapest, were astonished to the development of foreign travelers and correspondents. In 1896 the Hungarian nation spiritually stronger, economically prosperous Hungary proudly celebrated the anniversary of the conquest of 1000, I Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and king of Hungary was the most popular man in the country, the revolution's role in defeating the Hungarians forgiven him.
The Hungarian society, however, brought with him an unsolved problem, which is becoming worse, and I After World War II led to disintegration of Hungary. This is the problem of the nationality question. The Hungarian Kingdom within a significant number of foreign speakers - Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, etc.. - Population lived without nationality rights. The ethnic problem is the 1848-49-year revolution and at the time reported by the ethnic Hungarians of liberation against the court's side. The problem was that the lessons have been vague on the basis of the experiments, Kossuth himself also addressed the idea of exile in the Danubian Confederation, but were too late, the awareness of the smaller nations of Hungary against the Hungarians took place. The main concern of the leaders of these peoples, the Hungarians were segregated. This has led to the Austro-Hungarian Empire as part of the I lost World War II Hungary was unable to maintain the populated areas of nationalities. The Small Trianon Versailles castle following the peace treaty concluded with Hungary lost two-thirds of the territory. This contract may only be sanctioned on the situation, the spontaneous dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. October 1918, leaders of the ethnic line announced elszakadásukat Hungary. Finally, the general chaos revolution, which triumphed in Budapest on October 30. The civilian government will be formed, however, the efforts of internal and external circumstances above, it gave power to the Communists. 1919th March 21, from 113 days to consider itself the first Communist rule in Hungary. The independence of the country but he could not defend. The Romanian troops invaded Budapest. The Councils "After the fall of transition, economic and political crisis laden period followed by a formal peace treaty that has already closed. Hungary monarchy form of government remained, but the country Regent Miklos Horthy, the working-class leverője of the former Austro-Hungarian admiral directed.
The economic stability of ten years as prime minister István Bethlen (1921-1931) was created under. The Hungarian economy, however, continued dragging a 19th - lumps century, survived the feudal system of large estates. The political consolidation was not complete, because the Hungarian ruling class has made the public policies for recovery of lost territories, all of this Regulation applies. Thus, a new federal system is based on this, the Germans and the Italians looking for connections. This orientation has led to the Nazi side was hungary. The economic crisis of the thirties the Hungarian economic leadership of the armament program by leveraging the power he wanted to exit. II. Hitler's early years of World War II Hungary became an unconditional ally, hoping to recover lost territories. This is partly what happened. The Hungarian ruling circles have become an absolute kiszolgálóivá Hitler's persecution of Jews as well. Anti-Semitism has long been present in Hungary in the 1920s and rose to the rank of state policy. The row has anti-Jewish laws restricted the rights of Jews in Hungary, the Hungarian Ministry of the Interior in agreement with the active assistance of gendarmes took the Jews to death camps hurcolása II. during World War II.
Hungary also took part in World War II armed invasion of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union against attack. 1943-44-in, seeing the expected defeat of Germany, Horthy tried to quit the war. The Russians, however, was not willing to substantive negotiations for a long time, and when he did so, and as a result of the negotiations, announced that Hungary would withdraw from the war, the Germans, a well-organized coup own emberüket, leader of the Arrow Cross Party, Ferenc Szalasi into power. The fibrous-type rémuralomnak the occupying Soviet troops ended.
After World War II Hungary was sitting again on the losing side in the peace negotiations table. The areas were able to keep it from Hitler, but not lost ones. The Yalta Conference was a result of Hungary in the Soviet érdekövezetbe, and the further development of this set. The emerging bourgeois democracy in the Soviet Communist leaders returning from exile torpedoed tough work, and the left turn is carried out. In this context, the general distribution of land has been carried out, which undoubtedly had a large debt of the Hungarian state, and had a positive development, but also qualities of the church, however, was confiscated and nationalized factories. The new economic system faced numerous problems. The forced industrialization - which III. World War, Stalin dogmájából inevitability burst - supply constraints caused by the collectivization of agriculture and the peasants took back the land from a few years ago. The political life of a plethora of things right marked by false propaganda and violence, show trials, internments. This has led to the return to Moscow, the Communist leader, Ferenc Rakosi power weakened, and in 1953 was forced to hand over the power of Imre Nagy, a former companion in Moscow. However, this does not solve the structural problems of the system, such as October 1956 popular uprising broke out in Hungary. The uprising took part, together with those who have only been considered necessary to reform the communist system, and those who seek regime change in the total.
The occupying Soviet troops crushed the revolution, the country's leader Janos Kadar, former Latvian Minister of the Interior, who is a conceptual meghurcoltak trial and imprisonment. Kadar has never been in exile in Moscow, so instead of forcing the dogma has been able to decide on the basis of the realities. Led economic recovery emerged in Hungary, the majority of people of political rights rather than merely claim to be economically increased. Kadar became popular. Hungary to communism "happiest barracks" was named the Western European and American journalists. The root system of economic problems, weaknesses in the redistributive system of the seventies, however, were brought together olajválságával political erosion. The mid-eighties, developed a serious internal opposition intellectuals in Hungary. At the time of the socialist economies were in crisis at the same time, the leading countries of the socialist camp, the Soviet Union and the U.S. with belerokkant arms race. The reform efforts were in vain, the collapse of the socialist model.
Peaceful change of regime took place in Hungary, the Soviet troops withdrew and formed a parliamentary democracy. The market conditions during the transition from compensated the former owners of nationalized farms and landed properties or their descendants, the churches began to compensate. The privatization of large foreign capital flowed into Hungary. The regime was accompanied by a strong economic downturn, according to some calculations about. 40% of the population lived below the poverty line. The second half of the nineties boom emerged. St. Stephen King of Hungary 1000 years after the foundation of the state to accede to Europe again, and hope you have all this: Since 1999, a member of NATO in 2004 together with nine other countries join the European Union.